Virtual reality technology is a computer simulation system that can create and experience a virtual world. It uses a computer to generate a simulation environment. It is a multi-source information fusion, interactive three-dimensional dynamic scene and physical behavior system simulation. Immersed in the environment
Virtual reality technology is an important direction of simulation technology. It is a collection of simulation technology and computer graphics, human-machine interface technology, multimedia technology, sensor technology, network technology, and other technologies. . Virtual reality technology (VR) includes simulation environment, perception, natural skills and sensing equipment. The simulation environment is a computer-generated, real-time and dynamic 3D stereo realistic image. Perception means that ideal VR should have the perception of all people. In addition to the visual perception generated by computer graphics technology, there are also perceptions of hearing, touch, force, and motion, and even olfactory and taste, also known as multi-sensing. Natural skills refer to the movement of a person's head, eyes, gestures, or other human behaviors. Computers process data that is compatible with the actions of participants, respond to user input in real time, and feed back to the user's facial features. . A sensing device is a three-dimensional interactive device.
3. Development history
The evolution and development history of virtual reality technology can be roughly divided into four stages: the simulation of audio-visual dynamics is the first stage (before 1963) containing the idea of virtual reality; the bud of virtual reality is the second stage (1963-1972); virtual reality The concept generation and theory were initially formed in the third stage (1973-1989); the further improvement and application of virtual reality theory was in the fourth stage (1990-2004).
In addition to the visual perception of ordinary computers, it also includes auditory perception, tactile perception, motion perception, and even taste, smell, and perception. The ideal virtual reality should have the perceptual functions of all people.
It refers to the degree to which the user feels as the protagonist in the simulated environment. The ideal simulation environment should reach a level that makes it difficult for users to distinguish between true and false.
Refers to the degree to which the user can manipulate the objects in the simulated environment and the natural degree of feedback from the environment.
Refers to the degree to which objects in the virtual environment move according to the laws of physical world physical movement.
5. Technical characteristics
VR art is a new and independent art category that came along with the advent of the "virtual reality era". In the article "Virtual Reality Art: The Ultimate Recreation of Metaphysics", VR art has the following definition: The art form in which artificial intelligence technologies such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are used as media means is called virtual reality art, or VR art for short. The main features of this art form are hypertextuality and interactivity. "
"As a comprehensive reflection of the cutting-edge of modern technology, VR art is a new form of artistic language that visually manipulates and interacts with complex data through human-machine interfaces. It is important for artists to draw on the close integration of artistic thinking and technological tools. And the new cognitive experience generated by the deep penetration of the two. Compared with the new media art under the traditional window operation, the interactive and extended human-machine dialogue is the key to VR art's unique advantages.
Through the application of VR, AR and other technologies, artists can use more natural human-computer interaction methods to control the form of works, create a more immersive artistic environment and dreams that cannot be achieved under realistic conditions, and give the creative process New meaning. For example, an interactive device system with the nature of VR can set the audience to pass through multi-sensory interaction channels and the process of passing through the device. Artists can use the smooth cooperation of software and hardware to promote communication and feedback between participants and works, and create good participation. And maneuverability; can also capture motion through the video interface, store visitor behavior fragments, based on maintaining the participants' awareness enhancement, synchronously show enhanced effects and reshaped, processed images; through augmented reality, mixing Forms such as reality combine the digital world with the real world. The audience can control the projected text through their own actions. For example, data gloves can provide force feedback. The movable scene and 360-degree rotating sphere space not only enhance the immersion of the work. Sense, and can allow the audience to enter the interior of the work, manipulate it, observe its process, and even give the audience the opportunity to participate in re-creation. "
6. Application areas
VR technology is often used in urban planning. VR technology can not only represent the virtual urban environment very intuitively, but also simulate the emergence of natural disasters such as hurricanes, fires, floods, earthquakes, etc. It plays a pivotal role in the government's work in urban planning.
VR virtual technology can perfectly represent the environment and facilities of the entire community, as well as green belts, fountains, rest areas, sports fields, etc. that do not exist but are about to be completed. Users can roam freely in the entire community and carefully appreciate every scenery in the community.
Currently, VR technology is commonly used in the industry for indoor 360-degree panoramic display and indoor roaming. The pre-decoration system can realize real-time and dynamic adjustment and modification of walls, floors and furniture. Let you truly feel the actual effect of the house after the decoration is completed.
Cultural relic protection
VR technology is widely used in the protection of cultural relics. The Egyptian Pyramid Online Experience Center has used panoramic virtual technology and three-dimensional virtual technology, while IBM is using VR virtual reality technology to perform the entire digital virtual protection of the Beijing Forbidden City.
Whether in the air, land, or ocean and river traffic planning simulation, VR virtual technology has its unique advantages. Not only can it use 3D GIS technology to represent various transportation routes in place, but it can also dynamically simulate various natural disasters. Happening.
For game development, VR technology is currently more suitable for development: role-playing, action-based, adventure-solving, racing racing games. Its advanced graphics engine is no less than the current mainstream game engine's graphics performance. And the integration of supporting dynamics and AI systems has facilitated the development of the game.
VR technology is born from military applications. There are many military applications, including: simulated battlefields, simulated operations, simulated driving, and simulated equipment, all need to be realized through VR technology.
The most advanced virtual reality technology in the information field is also attracting much attention in the medical field. It uses specific interactive tools (input devices, such as sensory gloves and video eyepieces) to simulate the software and hardware environment in real operations. With an immersive feeling, it can be widely used in surgical training, surgical rehearsal, clinical diagnosis, remote intervention, medical teaching and other links.
In geographic applications, VR technology mainly uses a three-dimensional GIS geographic information system to represent intuitive three-dimensional topography, which is convenient for geographic workers and provides reliable reference data for related engineering construction.
In the field of education, VR technology mainly uses its interactive and vivid performance effects to simulate the production of related courseware such as solid geometry and physical chemistry. Moreover, in relevant professional training institutions, VR virtual reality technology can provide more assistance for students, such as virtual driving, simulation of various traffic rules, simulation of special equipment operations, simulation of extreme environments, etc.
In industrial applications, VR technology is mainly used in industrial park simulation, machine tool simulation operation, equipment management, virtual assembly, and industrial control simulation. Due to the characteristics of VR technology, it is very convenient, fast and accurate to engage in the above related work simulation.
Simulation training has always been an important subject in the aerospace industry. Since the 1980s, the US Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA has been working on a virtual battlefield system called SIMNET. This system can connect more than 200 simulators and use VR technology. Can simulate zero gravity environment, non-standard method of training astronauts underwater.
Video VR technology is also widely used in video applications. There are virtual studios in major TV stations, and some TV stations also use virtual hosts.
Virtual studio is a concrete embodiment of the combination of virtual reality technology and human thinking in TV program production. The main advantage of the virtual studio system is that it can more effectively express news information and enhance the contagiousness and interactivity of the information. The scenery produced by the virtual studio system is a proportionate three-dimensional design. When the camera moves, the virtual scenery and the foreground picture will change accordingly, thereby increasing the reality of the program. Using virtual scenes is cost-effective in many ways. If it has the ability to change scenes in time, it saves money in studio set production. Eliminating the need to move and retain scenes reduces the pressure on employees. It is not necessary to use the same studio for the same program, because the background can be saved to disk. It can give full play to the creative creativity and imagination of the creative staff, and use a variety of existing 3D animation software to create high-quality backgrounds.
Virtual maintenance is an important research direction of virtual technology in recent years. The purpose is to use computer simulation and virtual reality technology to realistically show the maintenance process of equipment on the computer, to enhance the various decision-making capabilities of maintenance at various stages of the equipment life cycle, including maintenance Design analysis, maintenance demonstration verification, maintenance process verification, maintenance training implementation, etc.